Another simulation LPPFusion is working on is modeling the early stages of the current sheath within the plasma. This original simulation software is being developed by LPPFusion Simulations Researcher Dr. Warwick Dumas. It differs from the most common plasma simulations, called MHD, in accurately distinguishing the way electrons and ions behave when they are moving in the direction of the magnetic field, as compared with when they are moving across the field.

A full sequence of images of the current sheath of LPPFusion’s experimental device shows that a shock wave is the most likely proximate cause of the disruption of filaments that has limited fusion energy yield. Our rapidly-advancing effort to provide new switches for FF-2B provides a path to eliminating the oscillations that cause these shock waves.

While the cracks were bad news, our inspection of the beryllium anode also brought good news. The erosion of the electrode near the insulator has markedly decreased with the beryllium electrode as compared with our previous tungsten electrode.

Had a great visit from one of our investors. It was great fun showing Jeff around and answering his questions.

He also took the opportunity to demonstrate to us his massage device...our sysadmin's first experience with one.

No pictures of'll have to take our word for it. 😂

These new images from inside our Focus-Fusion-2B experimental device show the development of the filaments of current (bright thin parallel lines) in the early stages of each pulse. The filaments are a crucial step in compressing and heating the plasma to get fusion reactions.

Eric is back from the Plasma 2019 conference, Opole Glowne, Poland. He lost 3 lbs. there, in one week. He was still jet lagged at the time of filming but here is the first report!

The interview with Leah Mishkin, the correspondent from NJTV who came to the lab today, went well. She informed us that if the piece is published, it will be about 6 minutes and will include other fusion projects.

By shot 6 this Monday, it was clear the switches were out of control...mostly prefiring...acting erratically...or rather erRATically...but by the end of the day we had a feeling the rats were not in the switches...2B continued...

(The scope manufacturer, Tektronix, discontinued drivers in 2016.) Excel 2003 has been fully kicked out of the loop (even though we had original CDs saved.) Thanks to Jose and Ivy for 24/7 support. The new experimental procedure now includes unplugging the UPS that powers the data computer prior to each shot...lots more—in progress...

Damaged computer due to shorts this past Wednesday was replaced. We’re ready to continue experiments tomorrow. A back up scope, used, was ordered from South Korea—just in case, today. A backup data computer was built in addition to the primary replacement. We’ve got an upgraded OS. Scope drivers for the new OS (we're talking old oscilloscopes) were found after some research thanks to Texas Instruments.

This is a high voltage trace from shot 5 of June 26, 2019. This was the second to last experiment this past Wednesday, before our data computer fried (without showing any visible signs of it inside the case.) This is our highest fusion yield so far this year, 1/10th J with the electrodes.

Sorry for the noise...basically the interpretation is the green line was not as wild as it looks...the possible shorts are elsewhere (chamber gas line, not shown here, is concerning...but not threatening)...The physical threats do exist, to machine and control room equipment...The IT team identified a high probability of the data computer frying despite the Faraday cage used for all diagnostic devices including the data computer...

Generally the yield trend is showing growth but it takes dozens of shots (experiments) for that trend to continue. It’s a bit of a dance: two steps forward one step back...with unknown steps in between. The images are of data on the scopes after shot 2 from Wednesday, June 26. See the next post for a bit of an "on the spot" interpretation by the chief scientist Eric Lerner.

In case you are wondering, here's the line on the anode we were talking about—it's on the right. It disappeared in the next few shots. We don't know what caused it.

We’re now over 30 shots and we have tripled fusion yield over last week. Not time yet to break out champagne, as we are still a factor of 4 short of our own record yield of ¼ joule. But going in the right direction. We’ve scanned from low to high fill pressure and we have found the sweet spot for now. Improvements are still needed. For one thing, was making too much noise when it fired—from shorts or arcs somewhere outside the vacuum chamber.

Beryllium experiment started! In the first week, we fired 13 shots, starting June 4. As anticipated, first shot vaporized thin beryllium oxide layer, creating dust. Good news is that the dust is steadily being cleared off, with very little evidence of additional erosion, in contrast to heavy early erosion with tungsten. We started to get measurable fusion on third shot and fusion yield has gone up ten-fold since then. However, not close to a record yet.

On June 4, LPPFusion Director of Communications Ivy Karamitsos officially renamed our device “Focus Fusion 2B” or “FF-2B” for short. It is “2B” for its beryllium electrodes and boron fuel (to be used later this year) but also because it is “focus fusion to be”. Traditional renaming of people, such as knighting, used ancestral obsolete weapons (King Arthur’s sword for example). So our peaceful scientific ceremony used an ancestral obsolete scientific calculator—a slide rule!

LPPFusion President and Chief Scientist Eric J. Lerner will present proposals for “A Faster Route to Fusion” at the Fusion Energy Symposium, a hearing sponsored by NJ State Senator Joe Pennachio (R-26) at the State House Annex in Trenton NJ.

Ivy will be presenting at a Mensa event on May 30 to explain why a successful implementation of the Green New Deal requires fusion energy. Eric will be there as well to answer technical questions.

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